As the economy improves, U.S. lenders have made an additional low-downpayment mortgage options available to today's home buyers -- the "piggyback mortgage".
Piggyback mortgages, which are also known as piggyback loans, were a mortgage-lending fixture last decade. The product fell from favor as home values dropped between 2007-2010.
The "80/10/10" (pronounced: "Eighty-Ten-Ten") is another common reference to piggybacks and, today, their availability is returning.
With the government reporting home values up in 40 of the last 41 months, banks are re-opening access to 80/10/10s. This is helping to promote homeownership nationwide -- especially among home buyers who have to buy a home before their current one is sold.
Piggyback mortgages make loans available with just a 10% down payment; while helping buyers to avoid the mortgage insurance payments typically associated with low-downpayment loans.
Want to buy a home but don't have 20 percent to put down? The piggyback loan may be a good fit.
A piggyback loan is two mortgage loans, actually. The first loan is a mortgage for the majority of your borrowed amount, and the second loan is a mortgage for what remains.
The loan is known as a piggyback mortgage because the second mortgage is metaphorically "piggybacking" on the first, combining to make a loan size for the total amount you wish to borrow.
Piggyback loans are generally available up to 90% loan-to-value (LTV) on the purchase price, with the first lien typically comprising 80% of the price, and the second "piggyback" mortgage comprising 10% of it.
This particular structure is known as an 80/10/10.
When you read "80/10/10", the "80" represents the LTV of the first mortgage; the "10" represents the LTV of the second mortgage; and, the last "10" represents the downpayment which the borrower makes on its own.
With piggyback loans, most often, the 80% portion is a 30-year fixed rate mortgage and the 10% portion is a home equity line of credit (HELOC).
Another typical piggyback structure is the 75/15/10.
With a 75/15/10, the first lien is for 75% of the purchase price, the second lien is for 15% of the purchase price, and the remaining 10% is the borrower's downpayment on the home.
It's common to see the 75/15/10 used in conjunction with the purchase of a condominium. This is because mortgage rates for condos are higher when the LTV of the first lien exceeds 75%.
To avoid paying higher rates, then, condo buyers will limit their first lien size to seventy-five percent. The remaining fifteen percent is handled by the HELOC.
Other buyers will use piggyback loans because they're buying a home which exceeds their local mortgage loan limits.
Via the piggyback loan, they can borrow up to $417,000 on their first lien, and then borrow the additional amount required via a second loan.
As an illustration, a buyer in Miami who plans to make a 20% downpayment on a $600,000 home may opt for a first mortgage of $417,000 and a second, piggybacked mortgage of $63,000 for a total of $480,000 -- or, 80% of the purchase price.
There are many reasons to consider piggyback loans.
Because piggyback loans limit your first lien to 80 percent LTV, they can be an effective way to make a low-downpayment on a home while avoiding monthly private mortgage insurance (PMI) costs.
For some buyers, this is their reason for using piggyback loans at all. Some buyers will do whatever possible to avoid paying PMI.
Editor's Note: PMI is neither good nor bad.
As a real-life example of how piggyback loan works, let's consider a home buyer in Denver, Colorado with good credit who is purchasing a home for $400,000, and wishes to make a maximum downpayment of $40,000, or 10 percent.
Assuming that this is not a military borrower who could use the VA Loan Guaranty program, there are several mortgage options available to the buyer:
For this particular buyer, the Conventional 97 will not be the best fit because private mortgage insurance rates and mortgage rates for a borrower making a 3% downpayment are slightly higher than for a borrower making a 10% downpayment.
An FHA loan may not be the best fit, either, because, with ten percent down, it's often cheaper to use conventional financing at ninety percent LTV.
So, that leaves the 90% conventional loan and the piggyback as the two remaining choices.
With one loan at 90% LTV, the buyer will pay PMI charges monthly and will also pay higher rates and fees for the right to make a downpayment of just ten percent.
Additionally, although the PMI is just temporary, the higher rate will last forever, adding to long-term costs. With the piggyback loan, things stay cheap.
The buyer gets a first mortgage for $320,000 and an additional mortgage for $40,000, totalling $360,000.
Piggyback loans offer another distinct advantage over "one-loan" programs, too -- they can be excellent tools for financial safety and planning.
This is because of how the piggyback loan is structured.
Recall that the first lien in a piggyback loan is often a fixed-rate mortgage, for up to 80% of the home's purchase price; and, that the second lien is often a home equity line of credit (HELOC).
HELOCs are extremely flexible in that they function similar to a credit card, except that the balance of a HELOC begins as "maxed out" whereas on a credit card, the balance starts at zero.
This means that you can pay down your HELOC at any time, giving yourself capacity to borrow should you ever need it.
For example, if you pay $10,000 to reduce your HELOC balance at any time during its existence, at a later date, you can write yourself a $10,000 check against the HELOC to use for any purpose necessary. It's your money, after all.
You can even pay your HELOC in full then leave it "open" for future use.
Home buyers who have to buy a new home before selling their old one will use this trick. They will buy the new home with an 80/10/10 and then, after their trailing home sells, they'll use the proceeds to pay the HELOC down in full.
This ten percent "cushion" can then be used in case of emergency; or, for home improvements; or, for any other purpose.
Like the credit card, there's no interest accrued when no money is borrowed, which renders the still-open HELOC an effective tool for planning.
Today's mortgage rates are low and home prices are on the rise. It's an excellent time to buy a home. And, now, for buyers who want to put less than 20% down, the piggyback loan becomes another tool to help make that happen.
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The information contained on The Mortgage Reports website is for informational purposes only and is not an advertisement for products offered by Full Beaker. The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not reflect the policy or position of Full Beaker, its officers, parent, or affiliates.
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2016 Conforming, FHA, & VA Loan Limits
Mortgage loan limits for every U.S. county, as published by Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac, the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)