Good credit scores give access to more than just today's lowest mortgage rates -- they give access to today's best loan programs, too.
You need a decent credit score to get approved for the low-downpayment FHA mortgage, and for the No Money Down USDA loan, as examples.
Plus, for borrowers using conventional loans to buy a home, only an "excellent" credit score grants access to the lowest available rates nationwide.
With the Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA) projecting $1.19 trillion in purchase mortgages for 2015, and with more than 5 million homes expected to be sold this year, today's home buyers can "help themselves" by priming their personal credit scores as much as possible.
Buying a home? Understand how credit scores work, and take steps to improve your personal score.
Credit reports are an official record of your financial history, detailing everything from auto loans you've taken, to credit card balances you've carried, to liens and bankruptcies linked to your name.
Generally, information added to your credit report remains for seven years. In some cases, information is permanent. The details of your credit report determine your credit rating.
Credit ratings can be based on an Alphabetic System (AAA through F), but are mostly commonly scored numerically.
Mortgage lenders use credit scoring systems which range from 300 at the low-end to 850 at the top-end.
Today's home buyers and refinancing households can get mortgage-approved with credit scores above 500, but having a better credit score often means having access to a lower mortgage rate; to additional loan programs; and, to the right to buy a home with little or nothing down.
The benefits of high credit scores extend beyond the world of mortgages, too. For example :
Therefore, having a high credit score can be paramount to getting the best rates, to paying the fewest fees, and to realizing the biggest monthly savings that are available to you.
Even better is that anyone can raise their credit score to the level of "Excellent". Once you understand the basics of credit scoring, and how it the system works, you can alter your credit profile to improve your overall score.
There are tens of credit reporting companies. However, in the mortgage world, there are three companies which matter most -- Equifax, Experian and TransUnion.
Collectively, these three firms are known as the "major credit bureaus".
Each of the bureaus sells more than one "credit score" product and, for consumers on their respective websites, it can be a challenge to know exactly which "score" to review.
For persons about to buy a home, the relevant scoring system, by bureau, is as follows:
These are the relevant scoring systems because, when a mortgage lender "pulls your credit", it's pulling your scores for these particular products. Your lender then takes the median of the three scores (i.e. the one in the middle), and calls it your credit score.
For example, if your credit scores are 620,640 and 700, your "score" is 640. As another example, if your credit scores are 700, 719 and 720, your credit score is 719. Credit scores are not rounded up or averaged.
Generically, credit scores are called "FICO scores", named after the Fair Isaac Co., a pioneer in the credit scoring space. The higher your FICO, the better your mortgage terms, all else equal.
When a credit bureau prints your credit score, in addition to providing your raw scores, it will typically offer up to four ways by which you can raise your credit score.
The notes can be helpful, ranging from the general ("Balances too high") to the specific ("Too many inquiries"). The notes can serve as a roadmap toward improving your FICO score.
It's not uncommon for a person to improve their FICO score by 100 points or more with attention to credit-scoring details.
But for all of the available advice, there remains only a few fool-proof ways to make drastic improvements to your credit score.
Of particular note is your "Amount Owed", highlighted in the second point above.
Ideally, a credit card balance should not exceed 30 percent of that card's available balance. This credit score metric comprises thirty percent of your overall score so, if you have trouble meeting this requirement, ask your credit card company to raise your credit limit.
For a higher credit score, raising your limit can be as effective as reducing your balances.
Lastly, if you've had a derogatory event on your credit report, avoid credit repair companies until you've done your due diligence. Often, time is the best healer of a "bad credit report".
Credit scores can be expensive. Consumers sometimes pay up to $79 just to get access to "mortgage" credit scores. Thankfully, you can get your credit scores for free -- just ask a lender to get your scores for you.
As part of the "mortgage rate quote" process, at no cost, most lenders will offer to check your credit for you in order to get you the most accurate mortgage rate possible. Your lender will then share those scores with you, once you ask.
It can be a terrific way to get access to your credit report without having to pay. You'll also know for what mortgage rates you may qualify -- a second, added bonus.
The information contained on The Mortgage Reports website is for informational purposes only and is not an advertisement for products offered by Full Beaker. The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not reflect the policy or position of Full Beaker, its officers, parent, or affiliates.
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2015 Conforming, FHA, & VA Loan Limits
Mortgage loan limits for every U.S. county, as published by Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac, the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)